Or, in Japanese: 合気道の語彙 (あいきどうのごい – Aikidō no goi): 語彙 (ごい, goi) = vocabulary, glossary.
Some Aikidō, 合気道, terms, with kanji, 漢字, (Chinese character, as used in Japanese language) and short explanation..
Attention: if you got problem to display properly the Japanese (日本語), take a look at this post (also for the PDF files!!)
|Introduction(PDF)||Pronunciation(PDF)||Jim Breen’s WWWJDIC|
|Stance(PDF)||Attacks(PDF)||Gen. Practice Terms|
|Techniques||PDF of all sections
I will include the romanji (the reading in our alphabet), the kanji version (Chinese characters) and the kana version, ie. the phonetic Japanese alphabet, using hiragana, ひらがな, for this.
And, yeah, a short description! 😉
When writing the meaning of a kanji I will refer to one of the best and my favourite Japanese-English web pages (opening in a new window):
..and to my kanji books..
As shorter notes for the use here:
- I put the pronunciation, when necessary, between brackets [###].
- The letter or letters between parenthesys (#) are mute, not to be pronunced.
- Vowels: a as in father; e as in get; i as in macaroni; o as in polo; u as in put or book.
- Long sound: the vowel is followed by “u”, う, except if it is an e, where the longer sound is done by an “i”, い, after (yep, the correct pronunciation of sensei is “sensee”, without saying the “i”) and I will try to write as often as possible with a stroke “-” over the letter: ā, ī, ū, ē, ō.
- g has a strong sound, something in between of give and sing.
- When nothing it is specified it means no special rule applies, so just read it! 😉
*** 合気道 *** 合気道 *** 合気道 *** 合気道 *** 合気道 ***
1: ichi 一 (いち) – [ich(i)]
2: ni 二 (に)
3: san 三 (さん)
4: shi 四 (し)
5: go 五 (ご)
6: roku 六 (ろく) – [rok(u)]
7: shichi 七 (しち) – [shich(i)]
8: hachi 八 (はち) – [hach(i)]
9: ku 九 (く)
10: jū 十 (じゅう) – [juu]
…and for the higher numbers, it is actually extremely easy:
11: juu-ichi; 12: juu-ni;…; 16: juu-roku;…; 20: ni-juu; 21: ni-juu-ichi;…; 50: go-juu;…; 99: ku-juu-ku
and 100, 1000, 10000 are different names, but it is a long way before I will have counts that high at practice, maybe only at sword practice.. for a good old time warming up 😉
Aikidō – 合気道 (あいきどう): The art of blending with the mats without feeling too much pain.. oh, no.. not here.. be serious! 🙂 OK, then, Aikido, literally mean the harmonic way of the energy, being composed by three characters:
- Ai – 合 (あう – yeah, actually the main reading is not “ai” but “aa”, long sound): joint; associate; accomplice; fit; put together.
- Ki – 気 (き): spirit; mood.
- Dō – 道 (どう): road; path; street; way; method.
Rei – 礼 (れい): literally, expression of gratitude; salutation; thanks – it means “to bow”.
Reishiki – 礼式 (れいしき): etiquette, manners.
Onegai shimasu – おねがい します [onegai shimas(u)]: literally it means “please”, and it is always said at the beginning of every class and beginning the practice with a partner, when bowing to the instructor or to each other.
Doumo arigatou gozaimashita – どうも ありがとう ございました [doomo arigatoo gozaimash(i)ta]: formal way to say “thank you very much”, always used at the end of practice, when bowing to the instructor.
Aikidōka – 合気道家 (あいきどうか): Aikidō practitioner. The last kanji 家 (it can be read “ie” also) means family, house and, better, when used as a suffix, like here, it takes the meanings of: house; family; person; expert; -ist (sort of: Aikidō-ist).
Tori – 取り (とり): the one who takes, defender in aikido, also called Nage (投げ, なげ) or Shite ( 指手, して)
Uke – 受け (うけ): the one receiving, attacker in aikido
Hō – 方 （ほう） [ho]: direction (example: shi-hō-nage = four-direction-throw)
Mae – 前 (まえ): front, before
Ushiro – 後 (うしろ): back, behind
Migi - 右 (みぎ): right
Hidari - 左 (ひだり): left
Omote - 表 (おもて): forward direction, or in the front side of the opponent
Ura – 裏 (うら): backward direction or in the rear side of the opponent
Hanmi – 半身 (はんみ): half-facing stance. Composed by the two kanji 半 (はん, han) = half; 身 (み, mi) = body.
Or, the stance is also referred as:
Kamae – 構え (かまえ): it comes from 構う [かまう] to mind; to care about; to be concerned about
Migi hanmi – 右 半身 (みぎ はんみ): right foot forward half-facing stance
Hidari hanmi – 左 半身 (ひだり はんみ): left foot forward half-facing stance
Gyaku hanmi - 逆 半身 (ぎゃく はんみ): opposite half-facing stance (one is in left stance and the other in right, for example)
Ai Hanmi - 相 半身 (あい はんみ): same half-facing stance (both are either in left or right stance)
Dori – 取り (どり): take, catch, grab
Uchi – 打ち (うち): hit
Tsuki – 突き (つき): punch, strike
Atemi – 当て身 (あてみ): strike to the body
Katate dori – 片手 取り (かたて どり): wrist grip
Gyaku hanmi katate dori – 逆半 身 片手 取り (ぎゃく はんみ かたて どり): wrist grip in reverse stance, left hand takes right or right takes left
Ai hanmi katate dori – 相 半身 片手 取り (あい はんみ かたて どり): wrist grip in the same stance, right on right or left on left
Kōsa dori – 交差 取り (こうさ どり): same as Ai hanmi katate dori
Morote dori – もろ手 取り(もろて どり): grip of the arm with both hands, also called Katate ryotedori
Katate ryōte dori – 片手 両手 取り (かたて りょうて どり): grip of the arm with both hands, also called Morote dori
Ryōte dori – 両手 取り (りょうて どり): gripping both wrists
Ushiro ryōte dori – 後ろ 両手 取り (うしろ りょうて どり): gripping both wrists from the back, from behind, also called Ushiro ryō tekubi dori
Ushiro ryō tekubi dori - 後ろ 両 手首 取り (うしろ りょう てくび どり): gripping both wrists from the back, from behind, also called Ushiro ryōte dori
Kata dori - 肩 取り (かた どり): shoulder grip
Ryō kata dori – 両 肩 取り (りょう かた どり): grip to both shoulders
Ushiro ryō kata dori – 後ろ 両 肩 取り (うしろ りょう かた どり): grip to both shoulders from behind
Hiji dori – 肘 取り (ひじ どり): grip on elbow
Ryō hiji dori – 両 肘 取り (りょう ひじ どり): grip on both elbows
Ushiro ryō hiji dori – 後ろ 両 肘 取り (うしろ りょう ひじ どり): grip on both elbows from behind
Mune dori – 胸 取り (むね どり): collar grip by the chest
Eri dori – 襟 取り (えり どり): collar grip by the neck
Kubishime – 首 締め (くび しめ): neck choke
Shōmen uchi – 正面 打ち (しょうめん うち): cut or blow to head
Yokomen uchi – 横面 打ち (よこめん うち): strike to the side of the head
Katadori menuchi: 肩 取り 面 打ち (かた どり めん うち): shoulder grip followed by shomenuchi
Jodan tsuki – 上段 突き (じょうだん つき): strike at head
Chudan tsuki – 中段 突き (ちゅだん つき): strike at belly/solar plexus
Gedan tsuki – 下段 突き (げだん つき): low strike, compared to chudan
- Tandoku dōsa – 単独 動作 (たんどく どうさ): individual practice
These exercises include:
Ukemi – 受け身 (うけみ): falling technique
Ashi-sabaki – 足 捌き (あし さばき): footwork
Tai-sabaki – 体 捌き (たい さばき): body move, evasive movement
Mae ukemi – 前 受け身 (まえ うけみ): forward fall
Ushiro ukemi – 後 受け身 (うしろ うけみ): backward fall
Shikkō – 膝行（しっこう), moving forward by sliding on one’s knees (in the presence of high-ranking individuals) (*)
Ayumi ashi – 歩み 足 (あゆみ あし): alternating steps, left and right, like normal walking
Tsugi ashi – 次 足 (つぎ あし): following step, where the rear foot is brought up close to the front then the front foot moves forward to the normal kamai/hanmi distance
Okuri ashi – 送り 足 (おくり あし): sliding step, where the front foot is advanced then the rear foot brought forward to the normal Kamae/hanmi distance
Kaiten – 回転 (かいてん): 180 degrees turn, rotation in place (on the toes)
Irimi – 入り身 (いりみ): in to the body, inwards
Tenkan – 転換 (てんかん) or Tai no henkō – 体の変更 (たいのへんこう) or Tai no tenkan – 体の転換 (たいのてんかん): body turn
Irimi tenkan – 入り身 転換 (いりみ てんかん): entering and turning the body
Irimi-sokumen – 入り身 側面 (いりみ そくめん): lateral entering
Torifune – 取り船 (とりふね) or funekogi undō – 船漕ぎ 運動 (ふねこぎ うんどう): rowing exercise
Furitama – 降り魂 (ふりたま): exercise to still ki
Some more about those two very important exercises is explained here!
Ikkyo shihogiri 一教 四方切 : 4 direction movement with Ikkyo entrance
Shomen uchi shihogiri 正面 打ち 四方切 : 4 direction movement performing Shomenuchi strike
Ikkyo Happogiri 一教 八方切 : 8 direction movement with Ikkyo entrance
Shomen uchi happogiri 正面 打ち 八方切 : 8 direction movement performing Shomenuchi strike
Ikkyo undo 一教運動 : enter with both arms forward in the tegatana (手刀) position, used also in combination of previous shihogiri or happogiri movements
- Sōtai dōsa – 相対 動作 (そうたい どうさ): practice with a partner
Suwariwaza – 座り技 (すわりわざ): sitting training
Tachiwaza – 太刀技 (たちわざ): standing training
Hanmi handachiwaza – 半身 半立ち技 (はんみ はんだちわざ): sitting versus standing
Jiyu waza : free techniques from free attack
Futaridori : defense against 2 attacker holding statically with grabbing techniques
Futarigake : defense against 2 attacker using dynamic striking or grabbing techniques
Tantodori 短刀取り: disarming techniques against knife attack
Tachidori 太刀取り: disarming techniques against sword attack
Jodori 杖取り: disarming techniques against stick attack
Jonage 杖投げ: defense techniques using the stick actively to throw the attacker (whose intention is taking the stick from you)
[A quite new page has been a very good fresh and useful reference, especially in order to put in words what I usually do on the mats.. in understandable words!]
Ikkyo 一教 : first principle, control of the elbow
Nikkyo 二教 : second principle, control of the wrist
Sankyo 三教 : third principle, a rotational wristlock that directs upward-spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder
Yonkyo 四教 : forth principle, similar to Ikkyo, controlling uke by applying contact to radial nerve points on the forearm
Gokkyo 五教 : fifth principle, defense from knife attack
Sumiotoshi 隅落 : corner drop, move the contact with the partner to the blind point
Shihonage 四方投げ : four-direction throw
Kotegaeshi 小手返し : wristlock-throw
Iriminage 入身投げ : entrance throw
Kokyunage 呼吸投げ : literally, breath throw, a system of throwing techniques by using more center and hips and relaxation than locks for unbalance the opponent, and then terminating by projection
Tenchinage : literally, heaven and earth throw where tori unbalance uke bu extending one arm completely upward and the other completely downward
Kaiten nage 回転投げ : a group of Kokyunage techniques using the foot movement kaiten – 2 versions:
- Uchi kaiten nage (内回転投げ), “inside” throw, tori enters between uke‘s arm and uke‘s body
- Soto kaiten nage (外回転投げ), “outside” throw, tori stays on the side of uke‘s arm and uke‘s body
Koshinage 腰投げ : hip throw, similar to Judo
Jujinage 十字投げ : cross arm throw